Northern Drive to St Lucy

Northern Drive to St Lucy
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Saturday, March 20, 2010

Specialized Rhyme Schemes in English Poetry Versification - Part VIII B

Anacreon Ode *
Dorian Ode or Choric Ode/Pindaric Ode *
Cowleyan Pindaric Ode *
Epinicion Ode *
Epithalamion Ode *
Horatian Ode
Homostrophic Ode
Irregular Ode
Prothalamion Ode *

Andrew Marvell's ode, "Upon Cromwell's Return from Ireland" opened up the flood-gates of British History as seen in the mind's eye of a Barbadian whose formative years in education were during the time when Barbados was a colony of Great Britain, a name supplanted for the preferred name, England.

For decades, Barbados was referred to as "Little England". Visitors to the island saw Barbados as "more British than the British", sarcasm or not, this remark didn't sit too well with post-colonial Barbadians. The 21st Century shows truly how Barbados has evolved into its true identity. As I think more deeply now on the colonial history of Barbados, it is worth the while to note that our next door neighbor, the Americans were not the first group in the New World to battle against British Colonialism. Long before the American Revolution, the planters of Barbados mainly of English, Irish and Scottish decent formed a Legislative Assembly. Barbados was loyal to the Crown during Britain's civil wars and, following the beheading of King Charles I in 1649, Cromwell dispatched a force to establish his authority over Barbados. The invading fleet arrived in 1651 and by 1652 Barbados had surrendered. This culminated with the signing of the "Treaty of Oistins" on January 11, 1652 at "ye mermaid Tavern" located in the town of Oistin in the parish of Christ Church on the southern part of Barbados. Use the google satellite map link provided here to location the exact position of Oistins if you so desire. Oistins is a major fishing community with a modern fishing market.

Oistins google map

This "Treaty of Oistins" contains a clause that reads "no taxes, customs, imports or excise shall be laid, nor levy made on any of the inhabitants of this island without their consent in a General Assembly". The articles of agreement in the Treaty of Oistins were drawn up to form Barbados' own parliament - the third oldest parliament in the entire Commonwealth. The Charter guaranteed government by a governor and a freely elected assembly, as well as freedom from taxation without local consent. When the British crown was restored in 1660, this Charter ironically provided Barbados with a greater measure of independence from the English monarchy than that of other British colonies.

Of vast significance to all Barbadians is the fact that the "Treaty of Oistins" became the model after which the American Declaration of Independence of 1776 was framed and which contains as well, the same concept of "No taxation without representation".

Andrew Marvell's ode "Upon Cromwell's Return from Ireland" therefore reflects on a few crucial months of 1650 in an England that was undergoing decisive social and cultural transformation. "Upon Cromwell's Return from Ireland", is one of the finest Horatian odes to be produced by Marvell. The verses are short within thirty quatrains that make up the ode. These quatrains are made up of rhyming couples that use a regular form (two four-foot verses followed by two three-foot verses). So what we see here are that these quatrains are made up of tetrameter and trimeter couplets and a regular rhyme scheme aabb throughout the entire ode. Take a look.

Upon Cromwell's Return from Ireland

The forward youth that would appear a
Must now forsake his Muses dear, a
Nor in the shadows sing b
His numbers languishing. b/aabb

'Tis time to leave the books in dust, a
And oil th' unused armour's rust, a
Removing from the wall b
The corslet of the hall. b/aabb

So restless Cromwell could not cease a
In the inglorious arts of peace, a
But thorough advent'rous war b
Urged his active star. b/aabb

And like the three-fork'd lightning, first a
Breaking the clouds where it was nurst, a
Did through his own side b
His fiery way divide. b/aabb

For 'tis all one to courage high, a
The emulous or enemy; a
And with such to enclose b
Is more than to oppose. b/aabb

Then burning through the air he went a
And palaces and temples rent; a
And Cæsar's head at last b
Did through his laurels blast. b/aabb

'Tis madness to resist or blame a
The force of angry Heaven's flame; a
And, if we would speak true, b
Much to the man is due, b/aabb

Who from his private gardens where a
He liv'd reserved and austere, a
As if his highest plot b
To plant the bergamot, b/aabb

Could by industrious valour climb a
To ruin the great work of time, a
And cast the kingdom old b
Into another mould. b/aabb

Though justice against fate complain, a
And plead the ancient rights in vain; a
But those do hold or break b
As men are strong or weak. b/aabb

Nature that hateth emptiness a
Allows of penetration less, a
And therefore must make room b
Where greater spirits come. b/aabb

What field of all the civil wars a
Where his were not the deepest scars? a
And Hampton shows what part b
He had of wiser art, b/aabb

Where, twining subtle fears with hope, a
He wove a net of such a scope a
That Charles himself might chase b
To Carisbrooke's narrow case, b/aabb

That thence the royal actor borne a
The tragic scaffold might adorn, a
While round the armed bands b
Did clap their bloody hands. b/aabb

He nothing common did or mean a
Upon that memorable scene, a
But with his keener eye b
The axe's edge did try; b/aabb

Nor call'd the gods with vulgar spite a
To vindicate his helpless right, a
But bowed his comely head b
Down as upon a bed. b/aabb

This was that memorable hour a
Which first assur'd the forced pow'r. a
So when they did design b
The Capitol's first line, b/aabb

A bleeding head, where they begun, a
Did fright the architects to run; a
And yet in that the state b
Foresaw its happy fate. b/aabb

And now the Irish are asham'd a
To see themselves in one year tam'd; a
So much one man can do b
That does both act and know. b/aabb

They can affirm his praises best, a
And have, though overcome, confest a
How good he is, how just, b
And fit for highest trust; b/aabb

Nor yet grown stiffer with command, a
But still in the republic's hand; a
How fit he is to sway b
That can so well obey. b/aabb

He to the Commons' feet presents a
A kingdom for his first year's rents; a
And, what he may, forbears b
His fame, to make it theirs, b/aabb

And has his sword and spoils ungirt, a
To lay them at the public's skirt. a
So when the falcon high b
Falls heavy from the sky, b/aabb

She, having kill'd, no more does search a
But on the next green bough to perch, a
Where, when he first does lure, b
The falc'ner has her sure. b/aabb

What may not then our isle presume a
While victory his crest does plume! a
What may not others fear b
If thus he crown each year! b/aabb

A Cæsar he ere long to Gaul, a
To Italy an Hannibal, a
And to all states not free, b
Shall climacteric be. b/aabb

The Pict no shelter now shall find a
Within his parti-colour'd mind; a
But from this valour sad b
Shrink underneath the plaid, b/aabb

Happy if in the tufted brake a
The English hunter him mistake, a
Nor lay his hounds in near b
The Caledonian deer. b/aabb

But thou, the war's and fortune's son, a
March indefatigably on; a
And for the last effect b
Still keep thy sword erect; b/aabb

Besides the force it has to fright a
The spirits of the shady night, a
The same arts that did gain b
A pow'r, must it maintain. b/aabb

Andrew Marvell's life on earth spanned from1621 to 1678. He was an English metaphysical poet from Winestead-in-Holderness, East Riding of Yorkshire, near the city of Kingston-upon-Hull. He is recognized as one of the greatest poets of the 17th Century. In the literary world, he is associated with John Donne, George Herbert and John Milton.

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Haiti Under Rubble from 7.0 Earthquake

Natural disasters whenever and wherever they occur impact on all of our lives. The Good Book says we are our brothers and sisters keepers lead by the Holy Spirit. Hence, we must do our part when disaster shows its ugly face. Any assistance, great or small, given from generous and loving hearts has equal weight. I'm passing on this information I received that Barbadians can go to First Caribbean Bank to donate to the Disaster Relief Fund for Haiti. The banking information is shown below:

First Caribbean Bank Account--2645374-- Cheques can be written to: HELP #2645374

For more information click on this link

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