Northern Drive to St Lucy

Northern Drive to St Lucy
Hurricane Season in Barbados. Are you ready for it? Click on Picture for Today's Weather Forecast.Have a super day come rain or shine.

Monday, October 25, 2010

Comments on Mowing

This Mesostich poem “Mowing” was written on April 21, 2006 in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The Mesostich is a variation of the Acrostic form. When the first letters of the middle words on each line of verse in a poem form the word or message relating to the subject a Mesostich poem is created.

This short poem entitled “Mowing” is made up of forty-four words with a syllable count of fifty-two. The bars in Chart 1 represent the number of words or syllables in each line of verse of the poem, and the vertical bars show where the middle point in each line of verse begins.

Chart 1(a)

Right>>>>>>>>> Middle>>>>>>>>> Left
Side >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Side

>>>>>>>>> - - - - │morn│ - - - -
>>>>>>>>>> 4 >>> 1 >> 4 >>>>>>>> /9 syllables
>>>>>>>>>> 4 >>> 1 >> 2 >>>>>>>>/7 words

>>>>>>>>- - - >>>│on │ - - -
>>>>>>>> 3 >>>>> 1 >>>3 >>>>>>> /7 syllables
>>>>>>>> 2 >>>>> 1 >>>2 >>>>>>>>/5 words

>>>>>>> - - - ->>>│waved│ - - - -
>>>>>>>> 4>>>>>> 1 >>>4 >>>>>>>/9 syllables
>>>>>>>> 3 >>>>>>1 >>>4 >>>>>>>/8 words

>>>>>>>>>>>- - - -│ in│ - - - -
>>>>>>>>4 >>>>>> 1 >>>>4>>>>>>> /9 syllables
>>>>>>>>4 >>>>>> 1 >>>>4>>>>>>> /9 words

>>>>>>>- - - - - - - │never│ - - - - - - -
>>>>>>>>4 >>>>>> 2 >>>> 4 >>>>>>/10 syllables
>>>>>>>>3 >>>>>>1 >>>> 2 >>>>>>/ 6 words

>>>>>>>>>>>- - - -│green│ - - - -
>>>>>>>>4 >>>>>>1 >>>4 >>>>>>/9 syllables
>>>>>>>>4 >>>>>>1 >>>4 >>>>>>/9 syllables

The syllable count of words for each line of verse was found so as to locate the central point of the line of verse, from which to start the Mesostich. What is a syllable?

In the English Language, the vowels are (a, e, i, o, u) so a syllable is the sound of a vowel that is created when pronouncing a word. The number of times that you hear the sound of a vowel in a word is equal to the number of syllables the word has.

Spotting Syllables

Count the number of vowels (a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y) in the word.
Subtract any silent vowels (for example: the silent 'e' at the end of a word). Subtract 1 vowel from every diphthong. A diphthong is when two vowels make only 1 sound (for example: oi, oy, ou, ow, au, aw, oo, like in the words boil, toy, saw, cow, moon, mouth...). The number you are left with should be the number of vowels in the word.

Dividing a word into Syllables

Divide off any compound words, prefixes, suffixes, and root words that have vowels. For example: houseboat (house/boat) unhappy (un/happy) prepaid (pre/paid) rewrite (re/write) farmer (farm/er), hopeless (hope/less)

Divide between two middle consonants. (For example: un/hap/py, hap/pens, bas/ket, let/ter, sup/per, din/ner). Never split up consonant digraphs “th”, “sh”, “ph”, “th”, “ch”, and “wh”) as they really represent only one sound.

Usually divide before a single consonant. For example: o/pen, i/tem, e/vil, re/port. The only exceptions are those times when the first syllable has an obvious short sound, as in “rob/in”.

Divide before an “-le” syllable. For example: a/ble, fum/ble, rub/ble, mum/ble. The only exceptions are “ckle” words like “pick/le”.

Here are some guidelines to help you compose your first Mesostich poem:

Firstly, make the decision as to what style you will write the Mesostich; whether in the traditional form or in Free Verse

Select a title for the Mesostich. Let’s say you selected the title “Luck”. Determine how many syllables will be featured in each line of verse. Locate the center point for each line of verse as shown below. This graphic representation will guide you through the composition process. Bear in mind that the Mesostich starts at the middle-point of each line of verse.

............ Mesostich .............
.................... l ....................
.................... u ....................
.................... c ....................
.................... k ....................

Start composing the poem, and be mindful that the word at the center of the first line of verse begins with the first letter of the poem’s title (in this example) with the letter “l”.

At the center of the second line of verse begin with the second letter of the poem’s title (in this example) with the letter “u”.

At the center of the third line of verse, begin with the third letter of the poem’s title (in this example) with the letter “c”.

At the center of the fourth line of verse, begin with the fourth letter of the poem’s title (in this example) with the letter “k”.

You can follow these procedures for any word in the title selected that has less than four letters or more than four letters when composing your Mesostich poem.

Read your completed poem aloud, check for errors and correct any errors found.

Sunday, October 24, 2010

Comments on Haiti's Holler

The recording of the date, time and place when a poem is completed does matter. In so doing, this helps when the poem undergoes critical analysis. That being said, I composed this poem “Haiti’s Holler” in Double Acrostic on May 20, 2010 at Cassia Drive, Husbands Terrace, St. James South, Barbados. Click on this Link for guidelines for writing a Double Acrostic poem. Much grieving, bewilderment and sadness still blanketed folks as daily news unfolded through all kinds of media and graphic pictures fed the eyes of those daring to look at such. This poem reflects some of the moods and moves at that time that drew attention to natural disasters and dire consequences when Mother Nature retaliates from years of plundering and scraping of her intestines to satisfy corporate greed.

The title of this poem is very explicit as it rolls itself into the first lines of verses one recognizes that the explicit point to the earthquake that unleashed its fury on Haiti. On Tuesday, January 12, 2010 an earthquake of a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 Mw, occurred in Haiti. Its epicentre was near the town of Léogâne approximately 16 miles west of Port-au-Prince, the Capital of Haiti. By January 24, 2010 reports stated that at least fifty-two aftershocks measuring 4.5 or greater had been recorded. An estimated three million people were affected by the quake; the Haitian Government reported that an estimated 230,000 people had died, 300,000 had been injured and 1,000,000 made homeless. They also estimated that 250,000 residences and 30,000 commercial buildings had collapsed or were severely damaged. The earthquake caused major damage in Port-au-Prince, Jacmel and other settlements in the region. Many notable landmark buildings were significantly damaged or destroyed, including the Presidential Palace, the National Assembly building, the Port-au-Prince Cathedral, and the main jail. Among those killed were Archbishop of Port-au-Prince Joseph Serge Miot, and opposition leader Micha Gaillard. Hédi Annabi.

Many countries responded to appeals for humanitarian aid, pledging funds and dispatching rescue and medical teams, engineers and support personnel. Communication systems, air, land, and sea transport facilities, hospitals, and electrical networks had been damaged by the earthquake, which hampered rescue and aid efforts; confusion over who was in charge, air traffic congestion, and problems with prioritisation of flights further complicated early relief work. Port-au-Prince's morgues were quickly overwhelmed with many tens of thousands of bodies having to be buried in mass graves. On January 22, 2010 the United Nations noted that the emergency phase of the relief operation was drawing to a close, and on January 23, 2010 the Haitian government officially called off the search for survivors.

Ten months after the earthquake struck Haiti, life is returning to normal but at a snail's pace. As at the writing of this, a new wave of destruction has swept over what is left in Haiti; the deadly scourge of cholera has broken out and has claimed hundreds of lives.

The fifth line of verse in this poem alludes to the sequence of events that fell from Iceland Eyjafyallajökull volcano. This seismic activity increased on March 20, 2010 and continued on to April 14, 2010 and into May. The Eyjafyallajökull volcano ejected into the air an estimated 250 million cubic metres of tephra. The ash plume rose to a height of approximately 30, 000 ft (9 kilometres) which rates the explosive power of the eruption as a 4 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index. The behaviour of the Eyjafyallajökull volcano caused enormous disruption to air travel across western and northern Europe due to the ash mist that blackened skies and was so reluctant to move away. According to reports, due to the large quantities of dry volcanic ash lying on the ground, surface winds frequently lifted up an "ash mist" that significantly reduced visibility and made observation of the activity of the volcano through web camera impossible.

The last line verse of the poem strikes a familiar chord that everywhere around the globe disaster shows its unwanted head on a chain of events natural or man-made. The closing line of verse points to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill which is referred to by such names as the BP Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill, BP Oil Disaster and the Macondo Blowout. This oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico flowed for three months in 2010. It started on April 20, 2010 when the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig exploded killing eleven workers and injured seventeen others. On July 15, 2010 the leak was stopped by capping the gushing wellhead after releasing into the Gulf of Mexico and estimated 53, 000 barrels per day of crude oil. On September 19, 2010 the relief well process was successfully completed and the Federal Government of the United States of America declared the well "effectively dead" but with far reaching consequences.

The oil spill caused extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats; as well as to the Gulf's fishing and tourism industries. Skimmer ships, floating containment booms, anchored barriers, and sand-filled barricades along shorelines were used in an attempt to protect hundreds of miles of beaches, wetlands and estuaries from the spreading oil. Scientists have also reported immense underwater plumes of dissolved oil not visible at the surface. The United States Government has named British Petroleum (BP) as the responsible party, and officials have committed to holding the company accountable for all cleanup costs and other damage. After its own internal probe, BP admitted that it made mistakes which led to the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill has become the largest in United States of America's history.

Saturday, October 23, 2010

Comments on Roses


This poem "Roses" was composed at my parents' home at Checker Hall, St. Lucy, Barbados on September 21, 2003. So inspired was I at the rose bushes growing outside my window, I had to write this short poem in Acrostic. I thought that the Double Acrostic would be perfect in reflecting the fact that one rose bush was blooming with red roses and the other with roses white as milk.

The Double Acrostic uses the first letters of words at the beginning of line verses and the first letters of words at the end of line verses to spell out the title of the poem. The rules that shape the formation of the Double Acrostic is shown in the graphic map below.

Beginning of line of Verses>>>>>____________________ End of line of Verses
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Rainbow is the hope we gladly do Recall

The content of all forms of Acrostic poetry should tell something about the encrypted mesage. It should convey prase on people, cities, objects,events, and so on.

Here are some guidelines on writing a Double Acrostic poem:

Firstly, decide on whether the poem will be in metered verses or free-verse. Select a Title for your Double Acrosic poem. Start composing the first line of verse for the poem.

At the beginning of the first line of verse, begin the first letter of the first word with the first letter in the Title. Continue on this same line of verse and end this line of verse with a word whose first letter begins with the first letter in the Title.

Compose the second line of verse for the poem. At the beginning of the second line of verse, begin the first letter of the first word with the second letter in the Title. Continue on this same line of verse and end this line of verse with a word whose first letter begines with the second letter in the Title.

Continue on this process until you have used all the letters in the Title. So for example, if your title has six letters as in "Violet" your Double Acrostic will have six lines of verses. Read your completed poem aloud and correct any errors found.

Thursday, October 21, 2010

Comments on Diastic Poetry

With Reference to the Poems:
Major Concern for Squatters, Major Concern
Squatters’ Paradise
Poor Squalors

These Diastic poems are egoless and deterministic arrangements that use Diastic reading-through procedure. I wrote these poems sitting under the Barbados Cherry Tree at the back of my home on Cassia Drive, Husbands Terrace, St. James South, Barbados. The first two on September 14, 2007 and “Poor” on September 15, 2007; and thinking about the time, that’s three years after the death of Jackson Mac Low, the inventor of the Diastic reading-through method procedures. This method came about after Jackson had experimented with the computer-automated text selection program developed by the poet Charles Hartman in the late 1980s. Jackson Mac Low has used various versions of the computer-automated text selection program since 1989 in his poetry.

Diastic is a word Mac Low coined by fusing Greek words “dia” (meaning through) “stichos” (a line of writing, a verse and is contrasted to “acrostic” from “akros”) “Akros” an extreme, such as a letter at the beginning or end of a verse line. Here is how Jackson Mac Low described his Diastic method. The writer reads through the Source Text and successively finds words or other linguistic units that have the letters of the Seed Text in positions that correspond to those they occupy in the Seed Text. I used this technique when writing the poems, “Major Concern for Squatters, Major Concern” shown in Exhibit 2(a); “Squatters Paradise” shown in Exhibit 3(a) and “Poor" shown in Exhibit 4(a).

The Source Text for the poem “Major Concern for Squatters, Major Concern” is shown in Exhibit 2(b) with the words that have the letters of the Seed Text in positions that correspond to those occupied in the Seed Text emboldened.

Exhibit 2(a)
(SEED TEXT)
Major >> Concern > for >>Squatters, >> Major >> Concern
12345 >>1234567 >123>>123456789>>12345>>>1234567

Move days adjacent into water chemicals for many forced therefore
Oldbury residence
for housing
garbage
status squatters
squatters squat
palatable squatters squatters transformation solutions
Morning same adjacent into water country’s most manufacturing
purchase spite authorities
opinion

Exhibit 2(b)
SOURCE TEXT

Article from the Daily Newspaper

The front page story of the Nation on July 18 highlighted that some squatters had been given enforcement notice to move from Oldbury and this was followed by another article, two days later, by the same newspaper, on squatters mushrooming in a "Zone 1" area adjacent to Blenheim. In the latter case, the water course runs into the Belle aqueduct and is then pumped to most of our reservoirs by the Belle pumping station. I compliment the newspaper for highlighting this problem relating to water region which is now likely to become a health hazard. I say this because the water table in the Belle is the country's most precious source; and Barbados is dependent on this to supply our nationals, our livestock, our tourism and our manufacturing industries. The purity of the water must not be compromised if we are to survive physically and economically. If we know that contamination of or water supply would be irresponsible and not immediately reversible, why not be strict with our regulations? It urgently becomes necessary for the responsible powers (if there is such) to arrest this modality which is increasing and being ignored by the policing powers. On the other side of the coin, Barbados now finds itself with a problem where persons who want to improve their social status and would like to own a residence, are unable to purchase the relevant entities. Most of them opt for the less expensive option of becoming squatters with minimal overheads. There is an urgency associated with their need for housing; and this cannot be ignored. This is similar to a revolt since their actions continue and are being done in full view of everyone and without fear of being caught in spite of the item being highlighted in our daily newspaper. It would be a wise move if such signals are not ignored by the authorities but are acted upon before it develops into a genuine social revolt as erupted in 1937.

The article of 20th July states that the residents have either water or electricity but this is not true for all of them. Some of the installations of utilities were done (in my personal opinion) much faster than for non-squatters. There still has to be concern about the disposal of faeces, other waste products, collection of garbage, use of chemicals to control weeds and pollution that occur as the population density increases. This increase in numbers is inevitable especially when others requiring similar commodities realize that no action will be taken to arrest the potential disastrous circumstance in the Belle. I would like therefore to, enquire on the status and requirements needed to build in this area as I do not believe our Town & Country Planning Department should/would allow such circumstances to prevail. In my opinion there is nothing wrong with the squatters' goals of wanting to have their own home but should this be done at the detriment of our water resource which can ruin our economy if/when it affects any (if not all) of our sectors. This type of venture needs to be regulated. I will conclude with this quote from the July 22 SUNDAY SUN article One World which gives the social studies panacea: "At first, a few violate the social norms, but as more people violate them, the actions become the norm."

Government's adviser on eradicating poverty, made this plea yesterday in the wake of notices the Town Planning Department sent to several squatters in Oldbury,St Philip to move on. “To bring the bulldozers in and uproot so many persons at one time is inhumane and not in sync with Government's commitment to help the poorest of the poor," told the SATURDAY SUN "I am not one to encourage people to squat, but it would be sociological madness, pure and simple, just to uproot them like that, to send in the bulldozers and lick down their houses. "There must be a more palatable solution, there must be a more humane solution." Adviser said Government needed to "sit down and talk" with Oldbury's more than 60 squatters to find practical solutions, which could include "regularizing" their status or helping them to find alternative sites. "You just can't wake up one morning and give people notice to move like that, especially people who have been living on the same spot for many years," the former Adviser of Social Transformation argued. "I have talked to some of these people and I know that in that 28-day period more than half of those people will not be able to find alternative sites.

"The irony of it is that many of these same people now facing the threat of being pushed off the land would have applied to the National Housing Corporation many years ago for a house-spot or a unit to rent and never heard one word from the NHC." The Member of Parliament charged that the NHC, by its inability to respond adequately to the vast demand for low-income housing "solutions", and a short-sighted state building program that failed to anticipate that Government units would be "bursting at the seams" within two decades of being built, were partly to blame for some of the squatting. "You think there is only squatting in Oldbury and The Belle? There is squatting in almost all Government housing schemes, where people are adding on to the original structures to accommodate family and close friends,". "When you are building, you have to build with a vision; you have to build with a plan for the future, but the people responsible for construction of a lot of the Government units, especially those in The Pine, never foresaw that within two decades you would have massive overcrowding there."In some cases we have 14 to 16 people living in one small two-bedroom unit and sharing one toilet. They have to sleep on the chairs, they have to sleep on the ground, some have to sleep close to the toilet." These people found themselves between a rock and a hard place, forced to endure such conditions at home or to venture out to squat because they could not get land or houses to rent or buy. "Therefore Government has to make houses available in a massive way to the poorest of the poor," he added. He said in the case of The Belle, a vital source of water for Barbadians, the solution might lie in establishing a waste treatment plant and allowing the squatters to stay. "It is time to stop the talk and get on with the job," he added. (TY)

The Source Text for the poem “Squatters Paradise” is shown in Exhibit 3(b) with the words that have the letters of the Seed Text in positions that correspond to those occupied in the Seed Text emboldened.

Exhibit 3(a)
SEED TEXT

Squatters’>> Paradise
1 2 3 4 5 6 789 >>>> 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Same aqueduct country’s modality entities
caught genuine squatters’ solutions
People same Parliament demand building bursting decades purchase
squatters
Squatters Studies panacea
first
violate Squatters Squatters’ solutions

Page nation our
relating would policing signals increase squatters squatters squatters
squat
might industries
survive necessary overheads
Personal taken arrest disastrous world solution
schemes
continue

Exhibit 3(b)
SOURCE TEXT

Article from the Daily Newspaper

The front page story of the Nation on July 18 highlighted that some squatters had been given enforcement notice to move from Oldbury and this was followed by another article, two days later, by the same newspaper, on squatters mushrooming in a "Zone 1" area adjacent to Blenheim. In the latter case, the water course runs into the Belle aqueduct and is then pumped to most of our reservoirs by the Belle pumping station. I compliment the newspaper for highlighting this problem relating to water region which is now likely to become a health hazard. I say this because the water table in the Belle is the country's most precious source; and Barbados is dependent on this to supply our nationals, our livestock, our tourism and our manufacturing industries. The purity of the water must not be compromised if we are to survive physically and economically. If we know that contamination of or water supply would be irresponsible and not immediately reversible, why not be strict with our regulations? It urgently becomes necessary for the responsible powers (if there is such) to arrest this modality which is increasing and being ignored by the policing powers. On the other side of the coin, Barbados now finds itself with a problem where persons who want to improve their social status and would like to own a residence, are unable to purchase the relevant entities. Most of them opt for the less expensive option of becoming squatters with minimal overheads. There is an urgency associated with their need for housing; and this cannot be ignored. This is similar to a revolt since their actions continue and are being done in full view of everyone and without fear of being caught in spite of the item being highlighted in our daily newspaper. It would be a wise move if such signals are not ignored by the authorities but are acted upon before it develops into a genuine social revolt as erupted in 1937.

The article of 20th July states that the residents have either water or electricity but this is not true for all of them. Some of the installations of utilities were done (in my personal opinion) much faster than for non-squatters. There still has to be concern about the disposal of feces, other waste products, collection of garbage, use of chemicals to control weeds and pollution that occur as the population density increases. This increase in numbers is inevitable especially when others requiring similar commodities realize that no action will be taken to arrest the potential disastrous circumstance in the Belle. I would like therefore to, enquire on the status and requirements needed to build in this area as I do not believe our Town & Country Planning Department should/would allow such circumstances to prevail. In my opinion there is nothing wrong with the squatters' goals of wanting to have their own home but should this be done at the detriment of our water resource which can ruin our economy if/when it affects any (if not all) of our sectors. This type of venture needs to be regulated. I will conclude with this quote from the July 22 SUNDAY SUN article One World which gives the social studies panacea: "At first, a few violate the social norms, but as more people violate them, the actions become the norm."

Government's adviser on eradicating poverty, made this plea yesterday in the wake of notices the Town Planning Department sent to several squatters in Oldbury, St Philip to move on. “To bring the bulldozers in and uproot so many persons at one time is inhumane and not in sync with Government's commitment to help the poorest of the poor," told the SATURDAY SUN "I am not one to encourage people to squat, but it would be sociological madness, pure and simple, just to uproot them like that, to send in the bulldozers and lick down their houses.” There must be a more palatable solution; there must be a more humane solution." Adviser said Government needed to "sit down and talk" with Oldbury's more than 60 squatters to find practical solutions, which could include "regularizing" their status or helping them to find alternative sites. "You just can't wake up one morning and give people notice to move like that, especially people who have been living on the same spot for many years," the former Adviser of Social Transformation argued. "I have talked to some of these people and I know that in that 28-day period more than half of those people will not be able to find alternative sites. "The irony of it is that many of these same people now facing the threat of being pushed off the land would have applied to the National Housing Corporation many years ago for a house-spot or a unit to rent and never heard one word from the NHC."

The Member of Parliament charged that the NHC, by its inability to respond adequately to the vast demand for low-income housing "solutions", and a short-sighted state building program that failed to anticipate that Government units would be "bursting at the seams" within two decades of being built, were partly to blame for some of the squatting. "You think there is only squatting in Oldbury and The Belle? There is squatting in almost all Government housing schemes, where people are adding on to the original structures to accommodate family and close friends,". "When you are building, you have to build with a vision, you have to build with a plan for the future, but the people responsible for construction of a lot of the Government units, especially those in The Pine, never foresaw that within two decades you would have massive overcrowding there."In some cases we have 14 to 16 people living in one small two-bedroom unit and sharing one toilet. They have to sleep on the chairs, they have to sleep on the ground, some have to sleep close to the toilet."

These people found themselves between a rock and a hard place, forced to endure such conditions at home or to venture out to squat because they could not get land or houses to rent or buy. "Therefore Government has to make houses available in a massive way to the poorest of the poor," he added. He said in the case of The Belle, a vital source of water for Barbadians, the solution might lie in establishing a waste treatment plant and allowing the squatters to stay. "It is time to stop the talk and get on with the job," he added. (TY)

Exhibit 4(a)
SEED TEXT

Poor> Squalors
1234>12345678

Page some another course
Station
squatters housing
disastrous should opinion
advisor Oldbury

Persons poorest poor
regularizing status quote
squatters squat simple
bulldozers regularizing Barbados

Exhibit 4(b)
SOURCE TEXT

Article from the Daily Newspaper

The front page story of the Nation on July 18 highlighted that some squatters had been given enforcement notice to move from Oldbury and this was followed by another article, two days later, by the same newspaper, on squatters mushrooming in a "Zone 1" area adjacent to Blenheim. In the latter case, the water course runs into the Belle aqueduct and is then pumped to most of our reservoirs by the Belle pumping station. I compliment the newspaper for highlighting this problem relating to water region which is now likely to become a health hazard. I say this because the water table in the Belle is the country's most precious source; and Barbados is dependent on this to supply our nationals, our livestock, our tourism and our manufacturing industries. The purity of the water must not be compromised if we are to survive physically and economically. If we know that contamination of or water supply would be irresponsible and not immediately reversible, why not be strict with our regulations? It urgently becomes necessary for the responsible powers (if there is such) to arrest this modality which is increasing and being ignored by the policing powers. On the other side of the coin, Barbados now finds itself with a problem where persons who want to improve their social status and would like to own a residence, are unable to purchase the relevant entities. Most of them opt for the less expensive option of becoming squatters with minimal overheads. There is an urgency associated with their need for housing; and this cannot be ignored. This is similar to a revolt since their actions continue and are being done in full view of everyone and without fear of being caught in spite of the item being highlighted in our daily newspaper. It would be a wise move if such signals are not ignored by the authorities but are acted upon before it develops into a genuine social revolt as erupted in 1937.

The article of 20th July states that the residents have either water or electricity but this is not true for all of them. Some of the installations of utilities were done (in my personal opinion) much faster than for non-squatters. There still has to be concern about the disposal of feces, other waste products, collection of garbage, use of chemicals to control weeds and pollution that occur as the population density increases. This increase in numbers is inevitable especially when others requiring similar commodities realize that no action will be taken to arrest the potential disastrous circumstance in the Belle. I would like therefore to, enquire on the status and requirements needed to build in this area as I do not believe our Town & Country Planning Department should/would allow such circumstances to prevail. In my opinion there is nothing wrong with the squatters' goals of wanting to have their own home but should this be done at the detriment of our water resource which can ruin our economy if/when it affects any (if not all) of our sectors. This type of venture needs to be regulated. I will conclude with this quote from the July 22 SUNDAY SUN article One World which gives the social studies panacea: "At first, a few violate the social norms, but as more people violate them, the actions become the norm." Government's adviser on eradicating poverty, made this plea yesterday in the wake of notices the Town Planning Department sent to several squatters in Oldbury, St Philip to move on. “To bring the bulldozers in and uproot so many persons at one time is inhumane and not in sync with Government's commitment to help the poorest of the poor," told the SATURDAY SUN "I am not one to encourage people to squat, but it would be sociological madness, pure and simple, just to uproot them like that, to send in the bulldozers and lick down their houses.”

There must be a more palatable solution; there must be a more humane solution." Adviser said Government needed to "sit down and talk" with Oldbury's more than 60 squatters to find practical solutions, which could include "regularizing" their status or helping them to find alternative sites. "You just can't wake up one morning and give people notice to move like that, especially people who have been living on the same spot for many years," the former Adviser of Social Transformation argued. "I have talked to some of these people and I know that in that 28-day period more than half of those people will not be able to find alternative sites. "The irony of it is that many of these same people now facing the threat of being pushed off the land would have applied to the National Housing Corporation many years ago for a house-spot or a unit to rent and never heard one word from the NHC."

The Member of Parliament charged that the NHC, by its inability to respond adequately to the vast demand for low-income housing "solutions", and a short-sighted state building program that failed to anticipate that Government units would be "bursting at the seams" within two decades of being built, were partly to blame for some of the squatting. "You think there is only squatting in Oldbury and The Belle? There is squatting in almost all Government housing schemes, where people are adding on to the original structures to accommodate family and close friends,". "When you are building, you have to build with a vision, you have to build with a plan for the future, but the people responsible for construction of a lot of the Government units, especially those in The Pine, never foresaw that within two decades you would have massive overcrowding there."In some cases we have 14 to 16 people living in one small two-bedroom unit and sharing one toilet. They have to sleep on the chairs, they have to sleep on the ground, some have to sleep close to the toilet."

These people found themselves between a rock and a hard place, forced to endure such conditions at home or to venture out to squat because they could not get land or houses to rent or buy. "Therefore Government has to make houses available in a massive way to the poorest of the poor," he added. He said in the case of The Belle, a vital source of water for Barbadians, the solution might lie in establishing a waste treatment plant and allowing the squatters to stay. "It is time to stop the talk and get on with the job," he added. (TY)

Here are some guidelines on how to create your Diastic poem using the Diastic reading-through method developed by Jackson Mac Low.

Select a Source Text from any type of reading matter you prefer. Read it through from the beginning to the end to get an understanding of what is written in the Source Text.

Select a Title-phrase (Jackson Mac Low referred to the Theme or Title as the Title-phrase) from what you have just read for your Seed Text. Let’s suppose you selected as your Title-phrase is “Copiapo Miners”.

Locate the position each letter in the Title-phrase holds, that is, which letter is first, second and so as shown in the example being used here and shown below

Copiapo Miners
1234567>123456

C > 1 .......... M >>> 1
o > 2 .......... i >>>>2
p > 3 .......... n >>>>3
I > 4 .......... e >>>>4
a > 5 .......... r >>>>5
p > 6 .......... s >>>>6
o > 7

Read through the Source Text again but this time look successively for words or other linguistic units that have the letters of the Seed Text in positions that correspond to those they occupy in the Seed Text. Keep reading until you find a word whose second letter has the same as the second letter in the Title-phrase, then a word whose third letter matches, and so on as shown in the example below. The matching seeds in the Source Text are emboldened.

Seed Text
Copiapo > Miners
1 2 3 45 67 >>>> 1 23 4 5 6

Copiapo Jose
copper-gold Copiapo
collapsed
accomplished
More billion mine miners metres CLDT
good expected silicosis
dental Copiapo Copiapo

Men miners miner
more miners metres

Source Text

The 2010 Copiapó mining accident occurred on 5 August 2010, when part of the San José copper-gold mine near Copiapó, Chile collapsed, leaving 33 men trapped deep below ground. The miners survived underground for a record 68 to 69 days. All 33 were rescued and brought to the surface on 13 October 2010, with the first miner emerging from the Fénix 2 rescue capsule at 00:10 CLDT and the last at 21:55 CLDT. After the last trapped miner was winched to the surface, the rescue workers held up a sign stating "Misión cumplida Chile" (English: Mission accomplished Chile) to the estimated more than 1 billion people watching the rescue on live television around the world.
The San José Mine is about 45 kilometres (28 mi) north of Copiapó, in northern Chile. The miners were trapped at approximately 700 meters (2,300 ft) deep and about 5 kilometres (3 mi) from the mine entrance. The mine had a history of instability that had led to previous accidents, including one death.
The retrieval of the first miner, Florencio Ávalos, began on Tuesday, 12 October at 23:55 CLDT, with the rescue capsule reaching the surface 16 minutes later. By 21:55 CLDT on 13 October, all 33 miners had been rescued, almost all in good medical condition, and expected to recover fully. Two miners were suffering from silicosis, one of whom also had pneumonia, and others were suffering from dental infections and corneal problems. Three of the rescued miners had immediate surgery under general anaesthetic for dental problems.
The total cost of the rescue operation was estimated between US$10–20 million, a third covered by private donations with the rest coming from state-owned mining corporation Codelco and the government itself.

If at any point you reach the end of the text, go back and continue from the beginning.
When a word is followed by a punctuation mark or ends a line in the Source Text, the line ends in the generated text (Seed Text). For example, comma appears after “Capiapo” and that is why a line break appears after it in the Seed Text poem.

Read through you completed Diastic poem aloud and correct any errors found.

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Comments on No Friendly Sky Anymore

The poem “No Friendly Sky Anymore” is egoless and deterministic designed by using the Acrostic reading-through procedure. This poem was completed on October 16, 2010 in the comfort of my modest home at Husbands Terrace, St. James South, Barbados.

Why do I describe this poem as egoless?

Egoless poetry is just what it is…not egocentric. Poets from the western tradition use objects as a mode to express their intellectual sentiments using a variety of poetic devices. Looking at a field of growing okras, the poet would never say, for example “okras are in bloom ready to be harvested” or in some other simple way, but will use imagery sensors to plant images in the mind’s eye of readers by probably saying “okras are pregnant from the electrifying rays of the sun, the pattering rain gleefully massaging their feet in sodden shoes with the whispering sounds of the wind in their thanksgiving dance”. So, instead of calling a spade a spade, poets from the western tradition make use of various poetic devices such as similes, metaphors, personification and symbolism for their embellishment fix. These various poetic techniques allow these poets to inject themselves within the composition whether directly or through the “voice” or persona assigned to articulate the muse.

Egoless poetry thrives on the concept of Zen that espouses the idea that objects should be seen in their true nature and not be distorted for one’s own self-centered gratification. This overarching use of romanticism in poetry is what propels egotistic gratification. Egoless poetry would have none of that thus avoiding the use of “self” or “I” in any form or fashion in its chance or deterministic creations. Don’t get me wrong, I’m not saying that poetry embellishment is a bad idea. On the contrary, I cannot imagine myself feasting on poetry without its seasoning and garnishes. Do you? As a side-dish, to balance the diet, egoless poetry rises to the occasion by not putting the poet as the centre of gravity but rather as a by-stander.

Egoless poetry is to be found in Japanese forms of poetry such as the Haiku and Senyru and in the poetry of the American poet, performance artist, composer and playwright Jackson Mac Low.

Why Jackson Mac Low described his poetry as “Deterministic”?

Mac Low never referred to his poetry as “chance” poetry although other readers of his poetry did. The Dada movement of Western Europe the early and middle years of the last century in such writers as Louis Aragon and Tristan Tzara, just to mention a couple Dadaists described their creations as “chance” poetry because they used chance operations to create their poetry. It is a method of generating poetry independent of the poet’s will. A “chance operation” can be almost anything like throwing the dice, bingo or using the computer. Most poems created by chance operations use some form of “parent text” as their source. The source can be a clipping from the newspaper, magazine, poem or whatever. The purpose behind this approach is to play against the poet’s intentions and ego, while creating unusual syntax and images. The resulting poems allow the reader to take part in producing meaning from the work.

Even though Jackson Mac Low’s egoless poetry relied on a Parent Text to populate the Seed Text with his two methods, namely the Diastic reading-through procedure and the Acrostic reading-through procedure and his knowledge of the workings of computer programs that gave much inspiration he never described his creations as Chance poetry although Chance poetry uses similar platforms. He insistently referred to his brand of poetry as “deterministic” because of his use of “matched asymmetries”.

What is there to uncover about Jackson Mac Low’s brand of poetry?

With a clear understanding of computer-based applications and the knack for modifying those to suit his person Mac Low created two approaches to writing his deterministic poetry swimming in the egoless sea. A cursory analysis of his poetic creations suggests that he was not seeking answers to aleatoric and egoless forms of poetry. He was more concerned with experimenting with the various forms of computerized application programs to find out what would be the outcome when a particular algorithm was introduced into poetry. His focus was to empirically invent techniques of artistic production meeting certain criteria. The outcome of this experiment in poetry is found in two methods he created: Acrostic reading-through non-intentional text-selection procedures known as the “Acrostic method” and the Diastic reading-through non-intentional text-selection procedures known as “Diastic poetry”. These two methods rely on a Source Text and a Seed Text. He employed these poetry generation techniques from April 1960 until January 1963. No doubt with the widespread use of computers in this 21st century his poetic technique has the potential of reaching even greater heights in modernistic poetry.

Here is how Mac Low described his Acrostic Method of deterministic poetry. The writer reads through a Source Text and finds successively words, phrases, sentence fragments, sentences, and or other linguistic units that have the letters of the Seed Text as their initial letters. I used this technique to read the poem “No Friendly Sky Anymore”. The entire poem “No Friendly Sky Anymore” in Exhibit 1(b) serves as the Source Text and its title as the Seed Text. The new poem that resulted is shown in the Exhibit 1(a). Seeds taken from the Source Text are italicized as shown in Exhibit 1(b)

Exhibit 1(a)
(SEED TEXT)

No Friendly Sky Anymore

Now our
flashbacks race in every nook do linger Yankees
stand kin yes
America nightmare you mourn our race elsewhere

Now our  (No)
flashbacks race in every nook do linger Yankees (Friendly)
stand kin yes (Sky)
America nightmare you mourn our race elsewhere (Anymore)


Here are some guidelines on how to create your first Acrostic poem using the Acrostic reading-through procedure developed by Jackson Mac Low.
Select a Source Text from any type of reading matter you prefer.  Let's suppose you selected this as your Source Text:
The 2010 Copiapó mining accident occurred on 5 August 2010, when part of the San José copper-gold mine near Copiapó, Chile collapsed, leaving 33 men trapped deep below ground. The miners survived underground for a record 68 to 69 days. All 33 were rescued and brought to the surface on 13 October 2010, with the first miner emerging from the Fénix 2 rescue capsule at 00:10 CLDT and the last at 21:55 CLDT. After the last trapped miner was winched to the surface, the rescue workers held up a sign stating "Misión cumplida Chile" (English: Mission accomplished Chile) to the estimated more than 1 billion people watching the rescue on live television around the world.

The San José Mine is about 45 kilometres (28 mi) north of Copiapó, in northern Chile. The miners were trapped at approximately 700 meters (2,300 ft) deep and about 5 kilometres (3 mi) from the mine entrance. The mine had a history of instability that had led to previous accidents, including one death.
The retrieval of the first miner, Florencio Ávalos, began on Tuesday, 12 October at 23:55 CLDT, with the rescue capsule reaching the surface 16 minutes later. By 21:55 CLDT on 13 October, all 33 miners had been rescued, almost all in good medical condition, and expected to recover fully. Two miners were suffering from silicosis, one of whom also had pneumonia, and others were suffering from dental infections and corneal problems. Three of the rescued miners had immediate surgery under general anaesthetic for dental problems.

The total cost of the rescue operation was estimated between US$10–20 million, a third covered by private donations with the rest coming from state-owned mining corporation Codelco and the government itself.

Read it through from beginning to the end to get an understanding of what is written in the Source Text. Select a theme or title from what you have just read for your Seed Text. Let’s suppose you selected “Copiapo Miners” as the theme.

Read the Source Text again starting from the beginning and find successively words, phrases, sentence fragments, sentences, and/or other linguistic units that have the letters of the Seed Text as their initial letters. The number of letters in the title of your Seed Text should give you an indication of the number of verses the Seed Text poem. For example “Copiapo Miners” poem would have thirteen verses as follows:

Copiapo Miners

C.................................
o.................................
p......................................
i.........................................
a...............................................
p...................................................
o............................
M............................................
i.............................................................
n.......................................
e..........................................
r................................................
s.......................................................

with the lines of verses varying in length normally.
Read your completed Acrostic poem aloud, check for errors and correct any errors found.

Sunday, October 10, 2010

Comments on Prayer

This poem “Prayer” was written on September 15, 2007 at Cassia Drive, St. James South, Barbados. It was my birthday. It takes the form of an Acrostic Reversed-Telestich in Free Verse. In reversing the forward movement of the Telestich portion of the Acrostic poem, to that of a backward motion is what created the Reversed-Telestich.

Looking at the poem, at first glance, it looks like metered poetry, but it is not. A closer look at the poem would reveal that it does not conform to established patterns of meter, rhyme and stanza.

The poems “Heroes” and “Prayer” take the form of the Acrostic Reversed-Telestich. Here are some guidelines to help you compose your first Acrostic Reversed-Telestich poem:

Firstly, make the decision as to what style you will write the Acrostic Reversed-Telestich; whether in the traditional form or in Free Verse.

Select a title for the Acrostic Reversed-Telestich. Let’s say you selected the title “Heroes”. Bearing in mind that the Reversed-Telestich starts at the end of each line of verse with that word whose last letter in reverse as shown in the graphic map below:

Acrostic side of the Poem .............. Reversed-Telestich Side of the Poem

H ...................................................... s
e ....................................................... e
r ....................................................... o
o ....................................................... r
e ....................................................... e
s ....................................................... h

Start composing the lines of verses for the poem, now that you know where the starting points are for the Acrostic and for the Reversed-Telestich sides of the poem.

At the beginning of the first line of verse, begin with the first letter in the title. Continue on this line of verse until you reach the end point and use a word that has the last letter of the title.

At the beginning of the second line of verse, begin with the second letter of title; at the end of this same line of verse, use a word that has the next last letter of the title. Continue this sequence for the remaining verses of your poem.

You can follow this procedure for any title you come up with for your Acrostic Reversed-Telestich poem.

Read your completed poem aloud, check for errors and correct any errors found.

Comments on "Heroes"

It was a cloudy day with no rain and a temperature of 28 degrees Celsius on October 10, 2010 when I wrote this short poem "Heroes" at my Cassia Drive home in St. James South on the coral island of Barbados. The poem is in the form of an Acrostic Reversed-Telestich with Tetrameter verses. This alphabetic poem is flagged under the category of “Heroism”.

Do you think that contemporary society has overuse the word “hero” for what might be easily construed as being a “good Samaritan”? Do you consider great explorers and sports-people to be heroes? Would this definition of a hero help you to make up your mind?

Bravery is usually the biggest trait of all heroes (male and female). Such persons have overcome huge obstacles to survive and to rescue others. Such persons accept the call to adventure and have overcome perils in a manner that requires courage and sacrifice in a way that benefits society in some recognizable way. Every person at sometime or other is constantly searching for a hero because a hero is someone that inspires you to lift yourself from your boot-string as it were for the greater good to self and to others.

Saturday, October 9, 2010

Comments on Good Friday

This acrostic Telestich poem “Good Friday” was composed at Cassia Drive, Husbands Terrace, St. James South on the island of Barbados on October 8, 2010. At first glance, you’ll think the poem is about the religious holiday observed primarily by Christians commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his death at Calvary, but it is not. The imagery of this short poem written in pentameter verses gives clues to a business management concept of budgeting, and uses the home environment as its launching pad as it were.

The word budget is derived from a French word for purse. Generally, a budget is a list of all planned expenses and revenues. It is one’s plan for saving and spending the money earned or gifted. A budget is a very important concept in microeconomics, which uses a budget line to illustrate the trade-offs between two or more commodities. A good definition for the term budget is the organizational plan stated in monetary terms.

What is the real purpose served by budgeting? There are two very important aspects to the budget plan: It provides a forecast of revenue and expenditure, that is, it constructs a model of how a business entity might perform financially, if certain strategies, events and plans are utilized. It actually enables the financial operations of the business to be measured against the forecast.

Do you believe households can benefit from personal budgeting? There are components from the business model of budgeting from which families and individuals can reap benefits. While budgeting is not the panacea for solving immediate financial problems, the wise management of one’s money will serve one well for years. Budgeting is worthwhile when considering the best use of one’s finances and one does not have to be a scrooge to do so.

Do you know which department prepares the United States Federal Budget, and who directs the Treasury to prepare the Budget for the United Kingdom? For sure, I know that the Ministry of Finance prepares the Budget for Barbados.

The poems “Good Friday” and “Treasures” which no doubt you have read by now, are written the form of the Acrostic Telestich. Here are some guidelines to help you compose your first Acrostic Telestich poem:

Firstly, make the decision as to what style you will write the Acrostic Telestich; whether in the traditional form or in Free Verse.

Select a title for the Acrostic Telestich, preferably a dual title is much better, but a single title could work as well. Let’s say you selected the title “Good Friday”. Select Good for the Acrostic side of the poem and Friday for the Telestich part of the poem. This procedure is shown on the map below, bearing in mind that the Telestich starts at the end of each line of verse with that word whose last letter ends with (f).

Good Friday

Acrostic Side .................... Telestich side
G………………..……………… f ...... (e.g. reef)
o………………..……………… r........ (prayer)
o………………..……………… i......... (kai)
d………………..………………d........ (deed)
………………………………... a......... (ameba)
……………………………… …y......... (theory)

If you decided on a single title for your Acrostic Telestich poem, for example ”Morning” the procedural map looks like this

Morning

Acrostic Side.............. Telestich Side
M………………..……..… m ....... (e.g. balm)
o………………………….. o ........ (e.g. ago)
r…………………………... r ........ (e.g. air)
n………………………….. n ........ (e.g. noon)
i…………………………... i ......... (e.g. kauri)
n…………………………..n ........ (e.g. fan)
g…………………………. g ......... (e.g. running)

Start composing the lines of verses for the poem, now that you know where the starting points are for the Acrostic and Telestich sides of the poem.

At the beginning of the first line of verse, begin with the first letter in the first word- title (in this example, the title is “Good Friday”) the first word-title is “Good” and the first letter is “G”. Continue on this line of verse until you reach the end point and use a word that has as its last letter “f” which is the first letter of the second word-title (in the example, the title is “Good Friday”) so the second word-title is “Friday”.

At the beginning of the second line of verse, begin with the second letter “o” from the first word-title; at the end of this same line of verse, use a word that has as its last letter “r” which is the second letter in the second word-title.

At the beginning of the third line of verse, begin with the third letter “o” from the first word-title; at the end of this same line of verse, use a word that has as its last letter “i” which is the third letter in the second word-title.

At the beginning of the fourth line of verse, begin with the fourth letter “d” from the first word-title, this completes the Acrostic segment of the poem; now focus on completing the Telestich second of the poet by going to the end of this same line of verse, use a word that has as its last letter “d” which is the fourth letter in the second word-title.

At the end of the fifth line of verse use a word that has as its last letter “a” which is the fifth letter in the second word-title.

At the end of the sixth line of verse use a word that has as its last letter “y” which is the sixth letter in the second word-title.

You can follow this procedure for any title you have for your Acrostic Telestich poem.

Read your completed poem aloud, check for errors and correct any errors found.

Monday, October 4, 2010

Comments on "Valentine's Day"

The poem “Saint Valentine’s Day was composed at Husbands Terrace, St. James South, Barbados on February 7, 2009. Saint Valentine event, though not a public holiday in Barbados, this fact does not diminish its impact on the general consciousness of Barbadians of all walks of life.

Barbados was once a British colony so whatever transpired in England found its way to our shores, and being called "Little England" said it all. Traditions handed down from England still hold true even though Barbados looks after its own affairs since 1966.

Here is a little history and myths about Saint Valentine’s Day. According to British history, Henry V was one of the great warrior kings of medieval England. He was very much loved by his subjects. He was born September 16, 1387. His father was King Henry IV (Bolingbroke) and Mary Bohun, daughter of the Earl of Hereford was his mother. He was their eldest son.

The Prince of Wales, for that was his title before he became King Henry V, fought many wars successfully. He was adept with the bow and arrow. He became King of England at the tender age of twenty-six in 1413. However, he was very experienced in raging and fighting wars from a very early age. His expansionist ideas moved him into recapturing the lands in France held by his ancestors, and laid claim to the French throne. His fame skyrocketed with his victory against the French at the Battle of Agincourt, a chapter in his life immortalized in Shakespeare's play. This battle led the French into agreeing to the Treaty of Troyes in May 1420. Thus, he was recognized as heir to the French throne and he married Catherine, the daughter of the French king, Charles VI of France. This marriage was an important part of the alliance agreed to with the Burgundians, culminating in the Treaty of Troyes which recognized King Henry V as heir to the French Throne.

King Henry V returned to England with Catherine after a period of three and a half years in 1421. In June he returned to France and died suddenly on
31 August 1422. By the way, his nine month old son succeeded him as King Henry VI and John Lydgate continued his close association with the new King of England, Henry VI in like manner he had with his father, King Henry V.

Before the Prince of Wales ascended to the throne of England he met
John Lydgate. Lydgate studied at Gloucester College, the Benedictine house at Oxford. The Prince of Wales recognized Lydgate's potential as a Lancastrian propagandist. Before he became King Henry V a year later, in 1412 he commissioned John Lydgate to work on his "Troy Book" (1412-1420). It was a translation and expansion of "Guido delle Colonne' Historia destructionis Troiae". This was the Prince of Wales' way of ensuring that the great epic about the Trojan War would live on as it were in "oure tonge". By literary circles, the "Troy Book" is rarely viewed as an epic, per se, but rather a collection of information about the political and moral counsel laced with mythical thought that linked England with Troy.

Lydgate's poetic structure has some semblance of the Chaucerian iambic pentameter verses, but varied in some cases by Lydgate's improvised poetic devices as the structure demanded. John Lydgate who was in addition to being a writer, poet, translator was a Benedictine monk and rose to the rank of a Benedictine Priest. He was educated at the Benedictine Monastery of Bury St. Edmund's. The archives shows the year of his birth at 1370 but I'm hard pressed to find the months of his birth and death. However, the records do show that he died in 1451.

Essentially one could not be wrong in saying that King Henry V looked upon John Lydgate as his Poet Laureate. Why, we have the historical framework that shows King Henry V employed him to be his writer, translator and poet. John Lydgate was a prolific poet and wrote many love poems. Hence, it would be no fallacy in believing that Prince of Wales soon to be King Henry V of England instructed Lydgate to write for him love letters, poems and notes. Throughout the time he was engaged in wars with France and courting Catherine Valois, the daughter of the French King, Charles VI it is purported that he instructed John Lydgate to write a love note and send it to her on Valentine's Day. One might well say that this act of King Henry V triggered the practice of sending love notes to friends and loved ones on February 14, handed down from medieval times and still persists in the 21st Century.

The oldest known valentine still in existence today was a poem written by Charles Duke of Orleans, the grandson of Charles V of France to his wife while he was imprisoned in the tower of London following his capture at the Battle of Agincourt.

The greeting which was written in 1415 is part of the manuscript collection of the British Library in London, England.

In England, Valentine's Day began to be popularly celebrated around the seventeenth century. Then, by the middle of the eighteenth century, it was common for friends and lovers in all social classes to exchange small tokens of affection or handwritten notes. By the end of the century, printed cards were an easy way for people to express their emotions in a time when direct expression of one's feelings was discouraged - so typical of the Victorian Era. Cheaper postage rates also contributed to an increase in the popularity of sending Valentine's Day greetings.

So yes, Barbadians each year embrace this day of love and romance. Students across the island find themselves busy preparing their valentines to be distributed to shut-ins on Valentine's Day along with the many red roses they will be handing out. Schools do have their Valentine's Day project well organized. Across the island stores are well stocked with all types of candy, chocolates, red roses and gifts for all types of shoppers for their various valentines. There are many valentine fetes organized by various social groups, religious organizations, individuals and lovers, all in the name of Saint Valentine. Who is this mysterious Saint and why do we celebrate this holiday.

History does not give any guarantee as to the origin of Valentine's Day. There is the consensus though, that the history of Valentine's Day and its patron Saint - is shrouded in mystery. What is known is that February has long been acclaimed the month of romance and goes back to a pagan festival known as Lupercalia. In ancient Rome, February was the official beginning of spring and was considered a time for purification. Houses were ritually cleaned by sweeping them out and then sprinkling salt and a type of wheat called spelt throughout the interior. Lupercalia, which began at the Ides of February, February 15, was a fertility festival dedicated to Faunus, the Roman god of agriculture, as well as to the Roman funders Romulus and Remus. The festival got on its way when members of the luperci, an order of Roman priests, gathered at the sacred cave where the infants Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome were believed to have been cared for by lupa, a she-wolf.

The priests sacrificed a goat, for fertility, and a dog, for purification. The boys sliced the goats hide into strips, dipped them in the sacrificial blood and took to the streets; gently they slapped both women and fields of crops with the goat-hide strips. Far from being fearful, Roman women welcomed being touched with the hides because it was believed the strips would make them more fertile in the coming year. The legend goes on to say that later in the day, all the young women in the city would place their names in a big urn. The city's bachelors would then choose a name out of the urn and become paired for the year with his chosen woman. These matches often ended in marriage.

While some believe that Valentine's Day is celebrated in the middle of February to commemorate the anniversary of Valentine's death or burial which probably occurred around 270 A.D, others claim that the Christian church may have decided to celebrate Valentine's feast day in the middle of February in an effort to 'Christianize' celebrations of the pagan Lupercalia festival. Now the puzzling questions in your mind perhaps are these. Who was Saint Valentine and how did he become associated with this ancient rite? We do know though, that even today, the Catholic Church recognizes at least three different saints named Valentine or Valentinus all of whom were martyred. However, we are again left with a number of legends. One legend contends that Valentine was a priest who served during the third century in Rome. When Emperor Claudius II decided that single men made better soldiers than those with wives and families, he outlawed marriage for young men--his crop of potential soldiers. Valentine, realizing the injustice of the decree, defied Claudius and continued to perform marriages for young lovers in secret. When Valentine's actions were discovered, Claudius ordered that he be put to death.

Another legend would have it that Valentine may have been killed for attempting to help Christians escape harsh Roman prisons where they were often beaten and tortured.

This other legend about Valentine states that Valentine actually sent the first 'valentine' greeting himself. While in prison, it is believed that Valentine fell in love with a young girl--who may have been his jailer's daughter--who visited him during his confinement. Before his death, it is alleged that he wrote her a letter which he signed 'From your Valentine,' an expression that is still in use today. Although the truth behind the Valentine legends is murky, the stories certainly emphasize his appeal as a sympathetic, heroic, and most importantly, romantic icon. It is perhaps no surprise that by the middle Ages, Valentine was one of the most popular Saints in England and France.

Seven days before Saint Valentine’s Day, this Acrostic on “Saint Valentine’s Day” was written. It has non-standard pentameter verses and end-rhymes. When rhyming words come at the end of verses, they are called end-rhymes.

Pentameter verse has five iambic feet. The imagery of this poem does not give off a romantic spell but the dark stench of bloody love—love not returned in good measure but abuse.

Imagery is the representation through language of the senses that poets use to plant mind pictures. There are seven different kinds of imagery: auditory, gustatory, kinesthetic, olfactory, organic, tactile and visual. Poets use these imagery sensors to plant images in the mind’s eye.

Examples of the different kinds of imagery taken from poems taken from poetrynest are shown below; click on the links to read each poem.

Types of Imagery

1. Auditory
... Sound:

You scrape the kernels' ear
Because each has a big eye that will pop


2. Gustatory
... Taste:

Sweet tooth capped to prevent its deadly wound
Drops of Taukau
honey fell from the jar

3. Kinestetic
... Movement or Tension:

Flinging words like flying feathers
Rain drops
fell from eyes of Payne

4. Olfactory
... A smell:
Where foul scents abode
Heaps of carrion fumes
perfumed the sky

5. Organic
... Internal sensation: fear, fatigue, thirst, hunger

The stillness haunts the lonely night,
Heavy rain keeps pouring down on the throng
Floods are everywhere in Poverty Bay.


6. Tactile
... Touch, for example: hardness, softness, wetness, heat, cold

Oh Rose! You cling and climb with flair
Two spirited harts meshed so very well


7. Visual
... in the mind's eye:

As nervous trees waved in the breeze
Of lines and curves of dangling sticky threads

Friday, October 1, 2010

Comments on "Mothers' Day"

This poem “Mothers’ Day” was composed at Cassia Drive in St. James South, Barbados in 2008. It is in the form of an Acrostic made up of a septet stanza and a tercet stanza. A septet is a stanza of seven verses. A tercet is a stanza of three verses. The poem contains end rhymes forming a rhyme scheme aabccbd aab. It has tetrameter verses. However, the analysis of the verses shows that no particular pattern of meter dominates the verses. So in the poem you'll see verses further described as Trochaic tetrameter and iambic tetrameter measuring 4 feet as shown in Exhibit #1.

Exhibit #1
Graphic Scansion of the poem, "Mothers' Day

Many<>pros and<>cons, tag<>parents;
Trochee..... Trochee .........Trochee .......... Trochee
... /u ............./u .........│ ...... /u ..........│...... /u ...│
............ 1 .................... 2 .................... 3 .............. 4 ..Trochaic Tetrameter


onus<>on moth<>ers to<>bear fruits
Trochee ....... Iamb ............... Pyrrhic ............. Spondee
../u ....... │...... u/ ................│...uu ..........│.......... // ......... │
.............. 1 ......................... 2 ................. 3 ........................ 4 ....Tetrameter


the Cre<>ator<>placed on<>us, his
.. Pyrrhic ..Trochee ... Trochee ........ Pyrrhic
.... uu ......│.... /u ......... /u ............. ... uu .....│
............... 1 ........... 2 ...................... 3 ............ 4 .....Tetrameter


heaven<>ly en<>dowed port<>manteau;
..Trochee .. Pyrrhic ..... Trochee ........... Trochee
.... u/ ......│... uu ...│........ /u ............│...... /u .......│
............... 1 .......... 2 ......................... 3 ................ 4 ....Trochaic Tetrameter


even<>Adam<>wore it<> to sow…
Trochee ..Trochee ... Trochee ...... Iambic
..... /u......... /u ... ..... /u .................u/ .............
........... 1 .............. 2 .............. 3 ........................... 4 ...... Trochaic Tetrameter


respect<>your mom<>,Benedict<>said it's
Trochee.......... Pyrrhic ....... Amphibrach .... Trochee
.... /u ...... │..... uu ............│........... u/u ... ......... /u ....│
............... 1 ...................... 2 .....................3 ................. 4 .... Tetrameter

Sacred<>,to cath<>olic<>decree;
Trochee ....... Pyrrhic ..Trochee ...Trochee
.... /u ......│...... u u .....│.. / u ........... / u │....
............... 1................. 2 ......... 3 ............ 4 .....Trochaic Tetrameter

Drawn to<>passions'<>bed we<>do wed
..Trochee .......... Trochee ... ... Trochee ....... Spondee
..... / u .........│....... / u ........│....... / u .....│..... / / ...... │
.................... 1 .................... 2 ................ 3 ................ 4 ..Trochaic Tetrameter

and Jor<>dan floods<>the Dead<>Sea bed
...Iambic........... Iambic ............ Iambic ......... Spondee
..... u / ..... │ ........ u / ......... │....... u / ........ │ .... / / .......│
................ 1......................... 2 .................... 3 ................ 4 ...Iambic Tetrameter

yearly<>since, Ma<>ry birth<>us Christ
Trochee ........ Iambic .......... Iambic ......... Iambic
... /u ......│ ...... u/ ......... │....... u/ ....... ...... u/ ......... │
..............1...................... 2 .................. 3 .................... 4 ....Iambic Tetrameter

In English poetry, measurement places emphasis on stressed and unstressed syllables and this type of measurement is described as accentual-syllabic meter, in which every syllable counts to create the proper rhythm and flow of the meter. Geoffrey Chaucer and his contemporary of poets are credited for the fusion of the accentual of English and the syllabic of French into modern English accentual-syllabic forms.

Meter means measurement of the verse length. Foot is the unit of such measurement; hence the measuring instrument is known as the metric foot. In ancient Greece during poetry chants, chanters danced to the rhythmic flow of poetry verses with their feet so this tradition of using feet as the measurement tool in poetry came about.

Let’s look at the words (attack), (beginner) and the phrase (her health) as examples.

The word (attack) has two like consonant letters (tt), the syllable before the double consonant is usually stressed. Hence, in the word (attack) the first syllable (at) is stressed and the second syllable (tack) is unstressed. The graphic scanning of the word (attack) looks like this:


at’tack
. /... u ... ... trochaic monometer


and therefore measures one foot and the symbolic representation of this particular pattern of the English foot is called a trochaic monometer. Exhibit #2 gives a listing of these various patterns in the English poetic foot.

Exhibit #2
English Metrication Symbols

u/ ........ Iamb
u/u ...... Amphibrach
uu/ ...... Anapest
/u ..........Trochee
/uu ....... Dactyl
// .......... Spondee
uu.......... Pyrrhic

These are the most common types found in English poems. I wished blogger was user friendly when it comes to tables and charts. Use is made of leader dots to prevent the scrambling of these symbols all over the blog.

A vertical line like this (│) in graphic scansion is called the counter. The counter marks the location where every foot ends on the lines of verse. The phrase (her health) has an unstressed word (syllable) and a stressed word (syllable). A phrase is a group of words that does not have both a subject and a predicate and therefore cannot stand as a clause or a sentence. The graphic scansion of this phrase (her health) looks like this:

her health
. u ... / ..... ... iambic monometer


This graphic scansion of the phrase (her health) shows that the first word (syllable) is unstressed and the second word (syllable) is stressed and therefore measures one foot making this particular symbolic pattern an iambic monometer verse.

Why is it an iambic monometer verse?

When a metrical foot in English poetry is made up of one unstressed syllable (u) followed by one stressed (/) syllable it is called an iambic foot. The English derivative of the word iambic is iamb. Exhibit #3 shows the symbolic representation of the various English poetic feet.

Exhibit #3
English Metrication

Monometer is a line of verse measuring 1 foot

Dimeter is a line of verse measuring 2 feet

Trimeter is a line of verse measuring 3 feet

Tetrameter is a line of verse measuring 4 feet

Pentameter is a line of verse measuring 5 feet

Hexameter is a line of verse measuring 6 feet

Heptameter is a line of verse measuring 7 feet

Octameter is a line of verse measuring 8 feet

Nonameter is a line of verse measuring 9 feet

Decameter is a line of verse measuring 10 feet

Why does the graphic scansion of the phrase “her health” shows and unstressed symbol for “her”?

Let’s bear in mind that English stress content words. Nouns, principal verbs, adjectives and adverbs are considered content words. Pronouns, articles, auxiliary verbs, prepositions, conjunctions are considered Function words. Function words are quickly glided over in speech hence the reason why they carry the unstressed label. These principles are applied as well in accentual-syllabic meter. This quality of quickly gliding over less important words is also known as connected speech. In my cursory analysis of English words with two syllables the stressed syllable seems to fall on the first syllable.

The word (beginner) has two like consonant letters (nn), the syllable before the double consonant is usually stressed. Hence, in the word (beginner) the first syllable (be) is unstressed, the second syllable (gin) is stressed and the last syllable (ner) is unstressed. The graphic scanning of the word (beginner) looks like this

be’gin’ner
..u . /.... u
Amphibrach u/u

It measures one foot in the pattern of the Amphibrach.

The iamb is the most common metrical foot in English and other languages as well. The iambic and anapestic meters are called rising meters because their sound rises from unstressed to stressed. Trochee and dactylic meters are called the falling meters and this is so because their sound falls from stressed to unstressed. The anapest and the dactyl are bouncing meters and in the twentieth century they were very popular in comic verses than for serious poetry. The spondee still measures a foot even thought it has one sound that is stressed, and so is the pyrrhic with one sound that is unstressed. They are never used as the sole meter of a poem. Wherever the spondee and the pyrrhic are found in the verse, they provide the complementary role of lending emphasis and variety to a meter especially the iambic rhythmic verses.

Metrical verses are named according to the constituent foot and for the number of feet in the line of verse. So what we have got is this listing where a:

Monometer measuring 1 iambic foot is called an Iambic Monometer

Dimeter measuring 2 iambic feet is called an Iambic Dimeter

Trimeter measuring 3 iambic feet is called an Iambic Trimeter

Tetrameter measuring 4 iambic feet is called an Iambic Tetrameter

Pentameter measuring 5 iambic feet is called an Iambic Pentameter

Hexameter measuring 6 iambic feet is called an Iambic Hexameter

Heptameter measuring 7 iambic feet is called an Iambic Heptameter

Octameter measuring 8 iambic feet is called an Iambic Octameter

Nonameter measuring 9 iambic feet is called an Iambic Nonameter

Decameter measuring 10 iambic feet is called an Iambic Decameter

It is not a common occurrence in English Language poetry to read lines of verses in poems made up entirely of the anapest, trochee, dactyl, spondee, pyrrhic or any other type. These only provide variety and versatility in the rhythmic flow of poetic verses. What is most common occurrence in English Language poetry is to read lines of verses in poems made up entirely or mostly of the iamb. The iamb is the most popular foot in English Language Poetry. So, any description of the lines of verses in English Poetry necessitates inclusion the name of the constituent foot or dominant foot.

Here are examples of two poems (“Rose” and “Upon Leaving USA”) for you to study:

Rose

Your roots .................... (monometer verse)
Are everywhere
In gardens near and far
With petals of sunshine beauty
Blooming ...................... (monometer verse)

Graphic Scansion of the poem “Rose”

Your roots
.... Iamb
...... u / ........
.................... 1 .... iambic monometer verse

Are ev<>erywhere
Spondee ....... Iamb
... //............. u/.......
............. 1 ................. 2 ... dimeter verse

In gar<>dens near<>and far
.. Iamb ....... Iamb .......... Iamb
... u/...... ....... u/ ......... .. uu ....

............. 1 .................... 2 ............ 3 ... iambic trimeter
With pet<>als of sun<>shine beauty
.. Iamb ...... .. Anapest .... .. Amphibrach .....
.. u/ ................. uuu ................... //u

.................. 1 .................... 2 ........................... 3 ... trimeter
Blooming<>
.. Iamb
... /u ...........
................... 1 ... iambic monometer

Some poems are written exclusively in monometer verse.
Here is such an example taken from the poem “Upon Leaving USA” and the graphic scansion on it as proof.

Upon Leaving USA

The stress
And worry
Were more
Than she
Could bear;

Graphic Scansion of the poem “Upon Leaving USA”

The stress<>

... Iamb
.... u/

..................
.................. 1 foot ... iambic monometer
And worry<>

Amphibrach
.... u/u
..................

.................. 1 foot ... amphibrachaic monometer
Were more <>
.. Spondee

..... //
.....................
..................... 1 foot ... spondaic monometer
Than she <>

Pyrrhic
... uu

...............
............... 1 foot ... pyrrhaic monometer

Could bear; <>

.. Spondee
...... //
......................

...................... 1 foot ... spondaic monometer

In this particular poem (Upon Leaving USA) even though each line of verse measures one foot (monometer) the foot pattern varies throughout the lines of verse, and the iambic foot is not the dominant pattern throughout the poem because other foot patterns have emerged but still not able to claim dominance in every line of verse either, so the poem can only be described as having monometer verses. If the iambic pattern had been able to claim dominance in all the lines of verse in the poem, then we could say that "Upon Leaving USA" is an iambic monometer poem. However, based on the graphic scansion the poem is simply a monometer poem. To read all the verses to the poem go to “Upon Leaving the USA".

What is there to learn about the graphic scansion process?

Scansion in the broadest sense is to examine carefully animate and inanimate entities using any range of symbols. This process of examining and analyzing symbols and symbolic expressions in the end products of poetry, for the purpose to make informed decisions as to what the poet is saying or might be implying is called Graphic Scansion. This process examines in detail the rhythmic flow and the metrical structure of poems in order to understand the poems better and to draw conclusions from them.



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