Northern Drive to St Lucy

Northern Drive to St Lucy
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Tuesday, June 14, 2011

Quantitative Meter Bedfellows - Part One

Quantitative Meter likes to measure the time it takes to talk with syllables. Naturally, any talk with syllables required the obvious bunkering down with vowels. Why you asked! The syllable is always in bed with a vowel. They cannot resist each other. They are like Siamese twins, identical to say the least but with minor precularities. The vowel asserts her independence though by telling her soul-mate whether her stay is long or short. This jiving does have significance in Latin and how might that be?

In Latin a word has as many syllables as it has vowels or diphthongs. Dividing a word into syllables is called syllabication. Let see how this impacts Latin poetry. Latin words are divided into syllables along a few basic rules as shown below:

- Two contiguous vowels or a vowel and a dphthong are separated. For example: dea, de-a ; deae, de-ae

- A single consonant between two vowels goes with the second vowel. For example: amicus, a-mi-cus

- When two or more consonants stand between two vowels, generally only the last consonant goes with the second vowel. For example: mittō,  mit-tō; servāre, ser-vā-re; consūmptus, con-sūmp-tus

- A stop (p, b, t, d, c, g) plus a liquid (l, r) generally count as a single consonant and go with the following vowel. For example: patrem pa-trem; castra, cas-tra

- Counted as single consonants are the qu and the aspirates ch, ph, th which should never be separated in syllabication. For example: architectus, ar chi tec tus; Loquācem lo-quā-cem

Every syllable in any vocal language must have a vowel. Every word must hav a vowel. Well of course, the number of syllables in a word dictates how many vowels will appear in the word. For example: disyllables have two syllables and two vowels; trisyllables have three syllables and three vowels; tetrasyllables have four syllables and four vowels and obviously a word with five syllabes would have five vowels and so on and so forth.

In Latin a syllable is long by "nature" if it contains a long vowel or a diphthong, a syllable is long by "positio" if it contains a short vowel followed by two or more consonants or by X which is a double consonant:Ks. Otherwise a syllable is short, again. Check out these examples shown below:

- Syllables long by nature: laudō lau dō; Rōma, Rō ma; amīcus, a mī cus
- Syllables long by position: servat, ser-vat; sapientia, sa-pi-en-ti-a; axis, ax-is (ak sis)
- Examples with long syllables underlined, whether long by nature or long by position: lau--te,
mo-ne-ō, sae-pe, cōn-ser--tis, pu-el--rum

Syllable quality plays out even in the English Language where some syllables take longer to pronounce than others, but we don't as a rule think about this so much. How often do you stop to think how in the word 'enough' (e-nough) with its very short first syllable and the longer second syllable.  In Classical Latin this observation is very important because syllable quality impacts significantly on Latin poetry; and of immediate importance, syllable quality determined the position of a word's stress accent.

Words in Latin, like those in English, were pronounced with extra emphasis on one syllable (or more in the case of long words); the placement of this 'stress accent' these strict and simple rules apply:

- In a word of two syllables the accent always falls on the first syllale:  sérvo, sér-vo; sáepe, sáe-pe; níhil, ní-hil

In words of three or more syllable, the accent falls on the next to last syllable (the penultimate), if the syllable is long. For example: servare, ser-vāˊ-re; conservat, cōn-sér-vat; fortuna, for-tūˊ-na Otherwise the accent falls on the syllable before the "antepenultimate. For example: moneo, mó-ne-o; patria, pá-tri-á; pecunia, pe-cū-niˊ-a; volucris, vó-lu-cris.  Please note that accent marks are hardly included when writing Latin because the rules for accentuation are very regular.

Next Topic: Classical Latin Vowels and Diphthongs
(Soon to come)

Sunday, June 12, 2011

Classical Latin Alphabet and its Impact on Quantitative Meter

Quantitative meter is about the alternation of “long syllables” and “short syllables”. Since a syllable must contain a vowel, it is the vowel that is the focus for determining the length or shortness of the syllable. In discussing this let’s put into perspective the composition of the Classical Latin alphabet and how it equates with the English alphabet. As can be deduced from Charts 9a, 9b the classical Latin alphabet, also known as the Roman alphabet is made up of twenty-three letters representing vowels, consonants, and diphthongs sounds; whereas, the English alphabet has twenty-six letters made up of vowels, consonants, double consonants and diphthongs sounds as well. The Latin alphabet gave us the English alphabet. However, missing from the Classical Latin alphabet during its early stages of development were the letters J, U, W.

Classical Latin Alphabet
 



While some letters were missing new letters were introduced or existing letters were repositioned. So what does this shifting landscape as it were tells us about Classical Latin?

Many interesting features of Classical Latin from a genealogical perspective are found as you will see. GN in Classical Latin produces the nasalized “ng” (ngay) sound as in the English word “hangnail”. Magnus is the Latin example of this principle. One could say this is a double-consonant in the making.

The letter H was drafted into Latin from another language. The H with the sound of (hā) was a breathing sound as in English, only less harshly pronounced as in these Latin examples: hic (hik), haec (hike).

Interestingly enough, the letter ‘I’ served as both a vowel and consonant. Consonantal ‘I’ makes the sound (e) appears regularly in English derivatives as a ‘J’ a letter added to the alphabet in the Middle Ages as for example: maior = major, Iūlius = Julius. Note however, when the ‘I’ comes between two vowels within a word it serves in double capacity: as the vowel ‘I’ forming a diphthong with the preceding vowel, and as the consonant like English Y as seen for example in: reiectus ( rei yectus) maior ( mai yor), cuius ( cui yus.) Otherwise it is usually a vowel.

The letters J did not exist. It appeared in the 16th Century AC. It was made by a French guy called Pierre de la Rameé. J was introduced to replace consonant ‘I’ as in this Latin word IESVS. Consonantal ‘I’ regularly appears in English derivatives as a J, a letter added to the alphabet in the Middle Ages as shown in the following examples: maior = major, Iūlius = Julius.

The letter K is very rarely used in Classical Latin, notice that in Charts 9a, 9b the C (cē), K (cā) and Q (cū) carry the K-sound in Latin.

In Latin the M usually had the sound it has in English, pronounced with the lips closed as in this example /monet/. There is some evidence, however, that in at least certain instances final /M/, that is, M at the end of a word, following a vowel, was pronounced with the lips open, producing a nasalization of the preceding vowel as in these two examples: tum, etiam.

The letter Q is pronounced as in English but is always followed by consonantal U as in QU, the combination having the sound KW (koo) as sound in these two examples: quid, quoque. QU is not a double-consonant in Classical Latin; it is treated as a single consonant.

In Latin the R is always rolled. However, as an English speaker I find great difficulty in creating the rolling sound for the R but I haven’t given up trying.

In Classical Latin the S sound was always voiceless as in the English word, see, never voiced as in the English word ease. These three Latin examples illustrate this rule: sed, posuissēs, mīssistis.

In Classical Latin, the letter T always had the sound of the English letter T as in tired, never ‘SH’ as in nation or ‘CH’ as in mention. These three Latin words are examples of this rule: taciturnitās, nātiōnem, mentiōnem.

Pierre de la Rameé is credited for introducing as well the letter ‘U’ into Classical Latin. ‘U’ is a variant of ‘V’, and ‘W’ was introduced as a ‘double -V’ to make a distinction between the sounds of ‘V’ and ‘W’ in the English language, though unnecessary in Latin. In Latin, the ‘U’ sound was written with the letter ‘V’for example, IVLIVS (Julius).

Puzzling as it may be, the ‘W’ was never integrated in the classical Latin alphabet. The letter ‘W’ was originally a ‘double V’ (VV) and it was first used by those scribes writing in Old English during the 7th century AD, however, the Runic letter Wynn (Ƿ) was more commonly used to write the (W) sound. After the Norman Conquest, the letter W became more popular and had replaced Wynn by 1300.

In Classical Latin the X has two letters (ks) so the X is recognized as a double-consonant.

The letters Y (ÿ) and Z were borrowed from the Greek Alphabet, and used only in Greek words. The letter ÿ comes from the Greek upsilon and the Romans called it "ÿ Graeca." The letter Z comes from the Greek Zeta and the Romans called it "Zeta," with a long zz sound. Z has two letters (ds) so it is a double-consonant.

A double-consonant is formed when two consonants coming together in a word to create a different sound. In Classical Latin, the ‘rr’ in the “currant” was pronounced as two separate r’s like the two r’s in this English sentence (The cur ran.); likewise the ‘tt’ (taytay) in the Latin word “admittent” sounded like the two t’s in the English sentence (Admit ten.) The Romans pronounced double-consonants as two separate consonants.

In Classical Latin these pair of letters: CH /kha/, PH /payha/, and TH /tha/ do not count as double consonants. They are treated as single letters as follows:

CH = CHI pronounced as /ke/ as in Archilochus
PHI pronounced as /p/ as in philosophia
THETA pronounced as /tayta) as in theatrum

The Romans quite appropriately pronounced double consonants as two separate consonants.

Next Topic: Quantitative Meter Bedfellows
(Soon to come)

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Haiti Under Rubble from 7.0 Earthquake

Natural disasters whenever and wherever they occur impact on all of our lives. The Good Book says we are our brothers and sisters keepers lead by the Holy Spirit. Hence, we must do our part when disaster shows its ugly face. Any assistance, great or small, given from generous and loving hearts has equal weight. I'm passing on this information I received that Barbadians can go to First Caribbean Bank to donate to the Disaster Relief Fund for Haiti. The banking information is shown below:

First Caribbean Bank Account--2645374-- Cheques can be written to: HELP #2645374

For more information click on this link

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